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2022 Most Complete Fiber Laser Cutting Machine Guide

Plate Fiber Laser Cutting Machine

Table of Contents

Definition

What is a fiber laser cutting machine? How does a fiber laser cutting machine work? Let’s have a deeper understanding.

Fiber laser cutting machine‘s laser beam is focused on a high power density laser beam.

The workpiece reaches its melting or boiling point when the laser beam strikes it, and the molten or evaporated metal is blown away by a high-pressure gas aligned with the beam.

As the beam moves and the workpiece is positioned relative to each other, the material is eventually cut and slit, resulting in a cut.

Laser cutting replaces the traditional mechanical knife with an invisible beam. It is characterized by high precision, fast cutting speed, unlimited cutting pattern, automatic nesting to save material, smooth kerf, and low processing cost.

In addition, laser cutting has the following advantages:

Traditional metal cutting equipment will be steadily improved or replaced by fiber laser cutting equipment.

  • The mechanical part of the laser cutting machine has no contact with the workpiece and will not scratch the surface of the workpiece when working.
  • Laser cutting is fast, the kerf is smooth, and no subsequent processing is required.
  • Small cutting heat-affected zone, small sheet deformation, narrow kerf (0.1mm~0.3mm).
  • No mechanical stress, no shear burr.
  • High machining accuracy, good repeatability, and no damage to the material surface.
  • CNC programming can process any flat pattern
  • It is possible to cut whole large plates without opening the mold, saving time.

Working Principle Of Fiber Laser Cutting Machine

Fiber Laser Cutting Machine Working Principle

Laser cutting uses the laser beam as a heat source for thermal cutting, and its working principle is similar to that of laser welding.

The temperature of laser cutting exceeds 11,000°C and will vaporize any material, so in addition to melting, vaporization also plays an important role in the laser cutting process.

Some materials, such as carbon and ceramics, are purely vaporized during the laser cutting process.

Heavy metal laser cutting is mostly done with high power CO2 continuous laser generators.

A stream of inert gas is injected and blown out of the cut during cutting, melting the metal and making the cut smooth and straight. The injected stream of oxygen increases the cutting speed.

Compared with other thermal cutting methods, laser cutting provides narrow kerf, precise size, smooth surface, and better cut quality.

Lasers can cut almost any metal material, with thicknesses ranging from a few microns to 50 mm plates.

Laser cutting equipment is a high investment, and it is used primarily for precision cutting of various thicknesses up to 12 mm, including stainless steel, titanium and titanium alloys, refractory metals, and precious metals, but also for non-metallic materials such as plastics, wood, cloth, graphite, and ceramics.

For example, the wood processing industry has used lasers to cut plywood and particleboard, and the apparel industry uses lasers to cut fabric in large quantities.

In addition, laser cutting is used for special applications, such as drilling holes for stone bearings, and surgeons use lasers as scalpels.

The laser beam parameters, the performance, and the accuracy of the laser cutting machine and CNC system will directly affect the efficiency and quality of laser cutting.

Structure Of Fiber Laser Cutter

DM 20211228111319 003

The major portion of the CNC laser cutting machine, the control system, the laser, the water chiller, the regulator, and so on are the essential components.

Most of the above parts have their manuals or operating instructions; here will be the mainframe’s structure and composition, the electronic control system.

Machine host part

The laser cutting machine’s main machine portion is the most significant part of the laser cutting machine.

The cutting function and cutting accuracy are realized for the most part.

The host part includes six parts:

Bed, laser, gantry components, Z-axis device, auxiliary parts of the table (protective cover, air, and water channels), and the operating panel.

Electrical control part

The laser cutting machine’s electrical control system is the most important component for ensuring the trajectory of various graphic movements.

The electrical control system consists mainly of the CNC system and low-voltage electrical system.

The laser cutting machine comes with CYPCUT software, which runs on the WINDOWS XP operating system and provides robust and dependable operation a 32-bit CPU, and an Ethernet connection port.

The system is characterized by fast interpolation, easy operation, good dynamic performance, and high load capacity.

The electrical control cabinet, which is the interface portion of the electrical control, houses the control part of the low-voltage electrical system.

The components of the electrical part adopt world-famous brands to ensure stable operation and responsiveness.

The driving motor is an AC servo motor used to drive the X-axis gantry and Y-axis slide of the laser cutting machine.

It is characterized by good acceleration performance and fast response speed.

The maximum positioning speed can reach 50m/min.

The feed axis of the laser cutting machine is powered by an AC servo motor on the Z-axis.

The good dynamic response characterizes this Z-axis cutting head.e., it can be controlled by both servo and CNC.

Overall structure

Overall structure

The main body part is the most important part of the laser cutting machine.

The laser cutting machine’s cutting function and accuracy are realized by the main body part, which consists of bed (Y-axis), beam (X-axis), Z-axis, table, air, and water circuit.

The frame part of the laser cutting machine

The bed comprises high-strength cast iron with an integrally welded structure, annealed to eliminate casting stress, rough machining → semi-finishing → vibration stress relief → finishing, and vibration stress relief.

Stress elimination is more thorough, which reduces the deformation of the machine and ensures the permanence of the accuracy.

Through the CNC control AC servo motor drive, the coaxial drive beam realizes the reciprocating motion of the Y-axis and the rapid motion as well as the rapid feed motion.

Its motion stroke is 1500mm*3000mm.

The rack and linear guide adopt a closed dustproof device, and the dust cover is light and reliable in operation.

The rack and pinion and linear guide are made of precision products, which effectively guarantee transmission accuracy.

Limit switches control both ends of the stroke, and both sides are supplemented by elastic buffers, which effectively ensure the movement safety of the laser cutting machine.

Crossbeam part

The crossbeam is welded with high-strength square tube and manually aged after mechanical processing to ensure the overall rigidity and strength.

The processing flow is rough machining → vibration aging → semi-finishing → vibration aging → finishing.

The Crossrail is mounted on the support guide of the bed (the guide has a linear guide and plane guide) with high quality linear guide, and a servo motor drives the gears through the reducer to make the Z-axis slide achieve reciprocating motion in the X-direction, and the motion stroke is 1450mm.

During the movement, limit switches control the stroke, and there are elastic buffers at both ends to ensure the system’s safety.

The upper part and both sides of the crossbeam are closed by covers. There are retractable organ guards between the crossbeam and the transverse slide plate to ensure that the frame and linear guide run fully enclosed, free from the influence of the external environment.

The optical path part is sealed with an organ guard to realize the fully enclosed structure of the optical path.

Replaceable workstation base and workstation (optional)

The entire welded construction of the workstation provides excellent strength and stability.

There are two pieces to the exchange table: an exchange unit and two moveable cutting tables.

The exchange unit is fixed on the backside of the bed and mainly completes the up-and-down exchange of the two tables.

The other cutting table can be used for feeding and unloading when cutting workpieces, which will improve the efficiency of the laser cutting machine.

The two movable cutting tables are composed of a welded frame with workpiece support doors on top.

The table can be loaded with 800KG.

A chain device can drive the two tables to achieve automatic exchange, which greatly improves productivity.

The middle of the working table is equipped with a universal ball seat, and there are four universal balls in the middle of the table, which can support 44 workpieces. The rod can be swung 180° by a rack and pinion mechanism driven by a cylinder.

Feed the spiral tube quick coupling into the quick coupling at the cutting station, turn on the pneumatic switch and make the cylinder drive through the rack and pinion.

Rotate the pendulum upward 180°, 44 universal balls support the workpiece, and the workpiece can roll on the universal balls to avoid the workpiece sliding on the support grid and causing scratches.

Press the pneumatic switch once the workpiece is in place. The cylinder will swing down 180 degrees through the rack and pinion system. The universal ball is just below the pendulum to avoid the ball from being burned during the cutting process.

Since the workpiece rolls on the ball during feeding and positioning, instead of the traditional support (the workpiece slides on the support grid), this mechanism can effectively protect the workpiece from being smooth during feeding and positioning and reduce the labor intensity of the operator.

Z-axis device

The Z-axis device is the part that realizes the lifting and lowering motion of the cutting head.

The lifting and lowering motion of the cutting head is realized by the servo motor controlled by the CNC system. The motor drives the ball screw to drive the Z-axis slide up and down reciprocating movement.

The stroke of the Z-axis is 100mm.

The upper and lower ends use closed switches to control the travel, and the ball screw has a flexible cushion at both ends to ensure the safety of movement.

The ball screw and linear guide are made of high quality products to ensure the accuracy of transmission.

Z-axis can be used as CNC axis for separate interpolation movement and can move together with X and Y axes.

It can also be switched to servo control through the electric control part of the cutting head to meet the needs of different situations.

Since CNC controls the servo control of the Z-axis, the servo control has higher precision and better stability, thus ensuring the quality of cutting.

The cutting head is sealed and elastically cushioned to ensure the service life of the cutting head.

The capacitive sensor in the Z-axis device (mounted on the cutting head) detects the distance from the nozzle to the surface of the plate and feeds the signal to the control system.

Then the controller controls the Z-axis motor to drive the cutting head up and down, which will control the distance between the nozzle and the plate to keep the same, and the cutting quality is effectively guaranteed.

The cutting head has a nut for adjusting the focal point, which adjusts the position of the focal point according to the material and thickness of the material to be cut so that a good cutting section can be obtained.

“Attention”: The nozzle is one of the process’s wearing parts; users can keep a few nozzles of various diameters on hand for easy replacement.

Electronic control part

The electric control system of the CNC laser cutting machine is mainly composed of a CNC system, servo system, and low voltage electrical system.

The laser cutting machine is composed of a CYPCUT CNC system, a PC CNC system based on WINDOWS XP, with fast interpolation and easy operation.

The servo system adopts a Japanese Yaskawa AC servo motor and driver, which is stable and reliable with good dynamic performance and strong load capacity.

Two front USB ports, two function buttons, and two operation soft keys are located on the laser cutting machine’s front panel (from left to right are the emergency stop switch, power switch, cutting start button, and cutting stop button).

The operation soft keys have different functions in different modes.

The operation soft keys can have different functions in different operation modes, thus reducing the operation buttons and simplifying the operation panel.

The operation function is displayed through the menu in various ways, which makes the operation more intuitive.

Fiber Laser Cutter Types

If based on laser generator, laser cutting machine can be divided into.

  • Solid-state laser cutting machine. Solid-state laser cutting machines can be further divided into ruby and YAG laser cutting machines.
  • Semiconductor laser cutting machine.
  • Liquid laser cutting machine.
  • Gas laser cutting machine.

If based on the structure, the laser cutting machine can be divided:

1. The CNC laser cutting machine can be divided into the relative movement of the cutting head and table:

  • Beam fixed form (fixed light path)
  • Beam moving form (flying light)
  • A hybrid form of semi-fixed and semi-moving

In addition to this, there is an articulated moving arm fixed optical flight beam transmission form, the so-called constant flight path.

Laser cutting machines with flying rays have only the cutting head moving along the X and Y directions during the cutting process, and the position of the table is fixed.

The characteristics of such laser cutting machines are:

  • Large size and heavyweight of processed sheets.
  • The equipment covers a small area.
  • No clamping is required for processing workpieces, which is convenient for loading and unloading.
  • The machine has a high level of acceleration and positioning precision.

Therefore, it is highly appreciated by the market as a mainstream model in the international market.

Some of the most prevalent characteristics of today’s laser cutting machines are as follows:

  • Gantry type movable flying line structure.
  • Beam marching type flying line.
  • Beam inverted movable fly line.
  • We cantilevered movable fly-by-wire structures.
  • Robot structure and large size hybrid fly ray.
  • Laser flexible processing system.

In terms of the structure of laser cutting machines, the frame of the machine includes:

  • Cast structures
  • Welded structures
  • Marble structures
  • The crossbeams are made of aluminum castings or welded parts and profiles.

Other parts are made of engineering plastics, fiberglass, and stainless steel.

The laser generator required for the laser cutting machine should be selected according to the user’s processing performance, processing material, shape, and size.

The available laser generators include :

  • For XO2 axial fast flow laser generator
  • RF plate commissioning laser generator
  • Vortex laser generator
  • Solid state laser generator
  • Fiber laser generator

Depending on the drive method, there are:

  • X and Y axes choose single-sided servo motor and equipped with the corresponding reducer, driven by high precision rack and pinion.
  • The X-axis is selected with a servo motor and equipped with a corresponding reducer, driven by a high-precision rack and pinion. There are two gears to eliminate backlash.
  • Directly powered by a servo motor and a high-precision ball screw. Directly driven by rack and pinion with disc large inertia motor.
  • A linear motor directly drives it.

The CNC laser cutting machine is usually equipped with a high precision linear guide and an automatic lubrication device.

A single-sided linear guide with a roller structure is a typical structure, which is economical and easy to adjust. Another structure is a direct drive unit structure using a combination of the drive unit and guide rail. This structure is easier to install, debug, easier to ensure accuracy, just a slightly higher price.

Fiber Laser Cutting Machine Installation and Commissioning

Installation and commissioning of laser cutting machines are very important for every factory, so please read the following details before operation.

Delivery Inspection

Precautions for unpacking:

Please follow the tips on the outside of the box to open the wooden box not to damage the laser cutting machine inside the box. Please do not open the protective film with sharp objects to avoid scratching the surface of the equipment and damaging the electrical installation of the protection pipeline. If the customer causes the damage, our company is not responsible for the replacement.

Inspection content:

  • After opening the package, please confirm if this is the laser cutting machine you purchased.
  • Check if the laser cutting machine has been damaged during transportation.
  • Check the list to ensure that the parts are complete and there is no damage.
  • If there is a mismatch in the model of the laser cutting machine, missing parts, or shipping damage, please contact the company.

Installation Environment Requirements

Please refer to the factory foundation diagram for installing and fixing the laser cutting machine, and please press the lifting position when transporting. Please ask the professional electrician to do the distribution wiring according to the requirements and not damage the machine when installing and fixing.

Installation Method and Precautions

Install and adjust the laser cutting machine by the plant foundation sketch and the layout ideas we provide. Do not damage the laser cutting machine when installing and fixing.

Commissioning Method and Related Instructions

Machine commissioning needs to be carried out by professionals and must be carried out according to the relevant regulations. Please read the relevant technical information at random before attempting to understand the performance of the laser cutting machine. Correct debugging ensures that the machine works properly; if there are unknowns, please contact us promptly. We will give you a satisfactory answer in the fastest possible time.

Note: This debugging method includes the debugging method after the machine is powered on.

The connection between the components of the power distribution cabinet

First, position each part according to the requirements, as shown in the figure below:

position each part

After installation, make the connection between each distribution cabinet.

A) First, check if the three connectors at the end of the Y-axis extension cable are damaged during transportation (the three plugs are. 16-core heavy-duty connectors, 19-core aviation plug, 4 encoders plugs, and one amplifier plug ) as shown in the figure below:

Aviation plug 1
Aviation plug
Heavy Duty Connectors
Heavy Duty Connectors
Encoder plug
Encoder plug
Amplifier plug
Amplifier plug

B) Insert the existing plug into place (the position is unique), insert the encoder plug into the corresponding servo drive according to the number above, and insert the amplifier plug into the height regulator.

C) Connect the water cooler power cable in the distribution cabinet to the designated position, as shown in the figure below:

Power plug
Power plug
Power plug connection position
Power plug connection position

(D) connect the main power supply (we use a three-phase four-wire system, the yellow and green wires are zero, and the remaining three are the fire wires). In summary, the electrical outside circuit connections have been completed, and in the next section, we discuss the water connections.

“Warning”: The ground wire of the power line must be reliably grounded. Otherwise, the signal inside the cabinet will be disturbed, and the risk of leakage will be encountered.

How To Connect The Water Cooler

Installation conditions

The water chiller should be placed smoothly and at a certain distance from the wall. The chiller installation site must have enough air inlet and outlet space to prevent the chiller from poor heat dissipation. The water-cooled fan should not face the distribution cabinet. Otherwise, it may cause the cabinet temperature to be too high.

Inspection of the machine

First, clean the debris in the water tank to ensure that the water in the tank is clean and free of impurities; then check whether the joints of the water pipe system are loose.

Installation method

Connect the inlet and outlet water pipes according to the signs on the chiller shell, connect them to the inlet and outlet doors of the laser, and should not misdirect the inlet and outlet pipes. Before connecting the water pipes, ensure that the outer pipes of the chiller are free of garbage and foreign objects.

Water quality standard

Check whether the drain valve is closed and add water to the tank. The water level on the water tank should be less than 30mm to 50mm to prevent water from overflowing. The chilled water unit is not allowed to use general tap water but must use high quality pure water, distilled water, or deionized water. Avoid adding any corrosive liquid.

Power supply during commissioning

Behind the water chiller is an air switch; turn on the switch for trial operation after connecting the water circuit. After the water pump is running, check whether there is water leakage at each joint; if there is, turn off the power and turn on the power again after the problem is solved.

Adjustment of water temperature

The water temperature in an air-conditioned room is usually set at 22-24 degrees Celsius; the water temperature in an air-conditioned room is usually set 2-5 degrees Celsius lower than the room temperature (no condensation on the pipe wall is appropriate, if the water condensation, indicating that the water cooler temperature is set too low)

Nozzle Effect And Laser Adjustment Of The Nozzle Mouth

nozzle mouth

Nozzle action and adjustment

A) Nozzle

Nozzle design and jet conditions directly impact cutting quality; nozzle manufacturing accuracy is closely related to cutting quality.

B) The main function of the nozzle

  • Prevent debris such as cutting debris bouncing upward into the cutting head and damaging the focusing mirror.
  • The nozzle can change the discharge of cutting gas and control the diffusion area and size of the gas, affecting the cutting quality.

The figure below shows the emission with and without the nozzle installed:

with and without the nozzle installed

Steps to adjust the nozzle so that the laser passes through the center of the nozzle

Compared with the CO2 laser cutting machine, the fiber laser cutting machine is without an optical path, only needs to adjust the laser at the nozzle mouth.

1) Apply printing clay to the end of the nozzle (use transparent tape if you don’t use printing clay), then put a white sticker on the end.

2) To see the occurrence, set the laser output power to 30W-50W, open the mechanical shutter, and fast switch the electronic shutter once. Then, close the mechanical shutter, take down the white sticker, taking care not to turn its relative position. If the nozzle position is too far from the laser center, the sticker will not be able to punch the center hole; as the laser center is fixed, change the center of the nozzle by adjusting the adjusting screw on the cutting head handle so that it corresponds to the laser center. Rep the previous steps until the laser hole on the white sticker align with the nozzle’s center, indicating that the laser center is aligned with the nozzle’s center. As seen in the diagram below.

The Impact Of The Nozzle On The Quality Of The Cut And How To Choose Its Size

The relationship between nozzle and cutting quality

When the nozzle’s center differs from the laser’s center, it impacts the cut quality.

(1) affect the cutting section

When the cutting gas is being injected, it causes an uneven amount of gas, making the cutting section more likely to have stairs on one side and not on the other. For cutting plates below 3mm, its impact is less, while for cutting plates above 3mm, its impact is more serious and sometimes impossible to cut.

2) Impact on sharp angles

When cutting sharp corners or workpieces with small angles, it is easy to have a local over-melting phenomenon, and it may not be able to cut when cutting thick plates.

3) Affect piercing

In the case of unstable piercing, time is not easy to control; penetrating the thick plate will cause melting, and the piercing conditions are not easy to grasp, the impact on small pieces of piercing is less.

In conclusion, the nozzle’s center and the laser’s concentricity are crucial aspects that influence the quality of the cut, particularly when the workpiece is thicker. Therefore, adjusting the concentricity of the center of the nozzle and the laser is necessary to obtain a better cutting section.

Note: When the nozzle is deformed or dirt on the nozzle, its effect on the cut quality is the same as above. The nozzle should be positioned gently and without being damaged to minimize distortion. The nozzle should be cleansed of any stains. The installation of the nozzle in the manufacturing of high precision requirements and the quality of the nozzle necessitates the precise approach. If the poor quality of the nozzle causes changes in various situations when cutting, the nozzle should be replaced promptly.

Nozzle aperture selection

The difference in nozzle aperture is shown in the figure below:

Nozzle ApertureAir FlowLiquid Melt Removal Capacity
SmallFastStrong
LargeSlowWeak

The nozzle has a diameter of 1.0mm, φ 1.4mm, φ 2.0mm, φ 2.5mm, φ 3.0mm and so on. The current nozzle diameter is often φ 1.4mm, φ 2.0mm. As shown in the picture:

current nozzle diameter

The difference between the two diameters is that one is smaller than the other:

1)Thin plate below 3mm: using φ4mm, the cutting surface will be smaller; using φ2mm, the cutting surface will be thicker, and there will be melt stains easily at the corners.

2)Thicker boards above 3mm: higher cutting power, longer relative heat dissipation, and increased relative cutting time. When using φ1.4mm, the gas diffusion area is small, so it is unstable to use, but it is OK. When using φ2mm, the gas diffusion area is large, and the gas flow rate is slow, making the cutting more stable.

(3) diameter of 2.5mm can only be used for cutting thick plates of 10mm or more.

In summary, the size of the nozzle has a serious impact on the quality of cutting and punching quality. The current laser cutting machine mostly uses φ1.4mm, φ2mm aperture nozzle.

“Note”: the greater the nozzle aperture, the lower the relative lens protection because the sparks from the melt splash during cutting have a high possibility of increasing and reducing lens life.

Beam Focus Adjustment

In the laser cutting process, the relative location of the beam focus and the surface of the cutting sheet has a considerable impact on the quality of the cut; accurate focus adjustment is crucial. Generally, you can test cut by changing the focus; when the backside does not hang slag and the smallest kerf, the corresponding steel plate is the focus position.

After changing the relative position of the cutting head and steel plate, the zero point of cutting head and sensor also need to be changed; fine adjustment can be made by adjusting the software of cutting height; when the adjustment is larger, the relative position of sensor and bracket needs to be adjusted to complete the focus adjustment. Pay attention to doing this work. Otherwise, it is easy to cause the cutting head to hit downward and cause damage to the parts.

The relationship between the focal point position and cutting effect

Name And Focus PositionCutting Material And Cross-section Characteristics
Zero focal length: focus on the cutting surface of the workpieceCarbon steel cutting instructions

Concentrate on the cutting bow and arrow’s surface; the upper surface is smooth, while the lower surface is not.
Positive focal length: the focus in the inside of cutting bowsAluminum cutting instructions

The focus is in the center, resulting in a larger smooth surface, a broader cutting width than zero focal, more air movement during cutting, and a longer perforation time than zero focal.
Negative focus: focus below the cutting bowsStainless steel cutting instructions

Stainless steel cutting with high-pressure nitrogen, molten slag blown away to protect a cutting section, cut breadth increased as the thickness of the workpiece rose.

The Choice Of Cutting Speed

The laser cutting machine’s cutting speed is determined by the material of the cut sheet, and the thickness of the sheet and varied cutting speeds have a significant influence on the laser cutting machine’s quality. Choosing the right cutting speed can improve the efficiency of the laser cutting machine but also obtain good cutting quality. Here are the effects of different cutting speeds on the cutting quality.

Laser cutting feed speed is too fast on the impact of cutting quality:

  • It may cause no cutting and sparks everywhere.
  • Some parts can be cut down, but some cannot be cut down.
  • Resulting in thicker parts throughout the cut, but no melt produced.
  • The cutting feed speed is too rapid, resulting in the sheet not being cut off in time, a slant line on the cut area, and melt spots on the lower half. As indicated in the illustration:
cutting feed speed

Effect of too slow laser cutting feed rate on cutting quality:

  • Causes excessive melting of the cutting plate, plus rough cutting section.
  • The gap will be widened accordingly, causing the whole area to melt on smaller rounded or sharp corners, and the ideal cutting effect cannot be obtained.
  • Low cutting efficiency affects productivity.
  • The choice of appropriate cutting feed speed: from the cutting spark can determine the feed speed: general cutting sparks are spread from top to bottom if the spark tilted, the feed speed is too fast; if the spark does not spread but less, condensed together, the feed speed is too slow. With the appropriate cutting speed, the cutting surface shows a relatively smooth line, and the lower half of the plate does not melt.

As shown in the picture:

laser cutting feed rate

Explanation Of Gas And Pressure Selection For Laser Cutting

Different cutting gases must be used for the sheet depending on the material to be cut. The quality of laser cutting is largely influenced by the cutting gas and pressure used. 

The cutting gas’s primary roles are as follows:

  • Combustion and heat dissipation.
  • Timely blowing off the stains at the weld.
  • Preventing cutting stains from entering the nozzle upwards.
  • Protecting the focusing lens.

The effect of cutting gas and pressure on cutting quality:

  • Cutting gas helps to heat and burn, blow away the stain, thus obtaining a better quality of the cutting section.
  • When the cutting gas pressure is insufficient, it has the following consequences on the cutting quality: fouling occurs during cutting, and the cutting speed does not meet the impact of productivity.
  • When the cutting gas pressure is too high, it has the following effect on the cutting quality: rough cutting surface and wide groove; at the same time, it will cause some sections to melt and cannot form a good cutting section.

Cutting gas pressure has the following impact on perforation:

  • The laser struggles to penetrate the cutting board when the gas pressure is too low, increasing drilling time and diminishing output.
  • The penetration point melts when the gas pressure is too high, and the melting point of the format rises, decreasing the cutting quality.
  • Laser drilling generally uses a high plate punching pressure, while punching of thick plates utilizes a lower gas pressure.
  • When cutting ordinary carbon steel, the thicker the material, the lower the pressure of the cutting gas is relative. When cutting stainless steel, the cutting gas pressure is always higher, although the cutting gas pressure does not change relative to the thickness of the material.

In short, the choice of laser cutting gas and pressure must be adjusted according to the actual situation. Different cutting parameters need to be selected according to the specific situation in the specific application. Our laser cutting machines are shipped with two gas channels reserved, while oxygen and air use one channel and nitrogen use a separate high pressure channel. The following figure shows that the two gas channels must be connected with a pressure reducing valve.

DM 20211228111319 022

Pressure Relief Valve Description: The table on the left shows the current pressure, and the table on the right shows the remaining gas capacity.

“Warning”:

  • Nitrogen supply pressure should not exceed 20Kg.
  • Oxygen supply pressure should not exceed 10Kg. Otherwise, it will easily cause a gas pipe burst.

The Effect Of Laser Cutting Power On The Cutting Quality

The choice of laser power size also has a certain influence on the cutting quality. The cutting power should be determined according to the material, and the thickness of the plate, too much or too little power cannot guarantee getting a good cutting section.

  • Too little laser power can make cutting impossible.
  • When the laser power is set too high, the whole cutting surface is melted, and the kerf is too large to obtain a good cutting quality.
  • When the laser power is not set enough, cutting scaling occurs, and scars are produced on the cut area.

So setting the proper laser power with proper cutting gas and pressure, you can get good cutting quality without melt stains.

Specification

Specialized Devices

To reduce the variation in focal point size caused by changes in beam size before focusing, laser cutting system manufacturers offer several specialized devices for users to choose from.

Parallel Light Tube

This is a common method of adding a parallel light pipe to the output of the CO2 laser.

The beam diameter increases as the divergence angle decreases, bringing the near and distant ends of the beam closer together.

We are adding a separate moving lens on the lower axis of the cutting head.

The Z-axis independent of controls the distance between the nozzle and the material surface.

When the machine table moves or the optical axis moves, the beam moves from the proximal to the distal end of the F-axis at the same time so that the focal spot diameter of the beam remains the same throughout the machining area.

Control the focusing mirror’s water pressure, commonly a metal reflection focusing device.

When the focused beam size becomes smaller, and the focal spot becomes larger, the focal curvature of the focal spot is reduced by automatically controlling the change in water pressure.

The flying ray cutter adds a compensating optical path system in x and y directions.

That is to say, when the distance of the distal end cutting increases, the compensation optical path will be shortened. On the other hand, when the light path at the proximal end of the cut decreases, the compensating fly ray increases to keep the length of the light path consistent.

Cutting Perforation Technology

With a few exceptions, any thermal cutting technique can start at the edge of the board, where a small hole must generally be drilled through the board.

In the early days, a laser punch was used to make a hole first, and then the laser was used to cut through the hole.

For laser cutting machines without punching devices, there are two basic methods.

Blast drilling

After continuous laser irradiation, a pit is formed in the middle of the material, which is then quickly removed by a stream of oxygen under the action of the laser beam.

The average size of the hole is related to the plate thickness, and the average diameter of the blast hole is half of the plate thickness.

Therefore, the large hole diameter and poor roundness determine that it is unsuitable for demanding parts (e.g., oil mesh seam tubes) and can only be used for scrap.

In addition, the oxygen pressure used for perforating is the same as for cutting. Splashes are very serious.

Pulsed drilling

A pulsed laser with peak power is used to melt or vaporize small amounts of material. Ordinary air or nitrogen is used as auxiliary gas to reduce the hole’s expansion due to exothermic oxidation. The oxygen pressure is less than the pressure used for cutting.

Each pulsed laser produces only small particles ejected at depth, so it takes a few seconds to perforate a thick plate.

Once the piercing is complete, the auxiliary gas is immediately replaced with oxygen for cutting.

This results in smaller perforation diameters and better perforation quality than blast drilling.

The laser must have a high output power and the temporal and spatial characteristics of the beam.

Therefore, a general CO2 laser generator cannot meet laser cutting requirements.

In addition, pulse perforation should also have a reliable gas control system for gas type, gas pressure switching, and perforation time control.

To get a high-quality kerf, the transition method from pulse perforation to continuous cutting of the workpiece should be stressed in the case of pulse perforation.

Theoretically, the cutting conditions that usually change the acceleration section include focal length, nozzle position, and gas pressure. However, the above conditions are unlikely to change in too short a period.

Nozzle Design and Airflow Control Technology

When laser cutting steel, oxygen, and a focused laser beam are shot through a nozzle into the kerf material, forming a gas stream beam.

The basic requirement for the airflow is that the airflow into the kerf should be large and at a high velocity so that there is sufficient oxidation to exotherm the kerf material sufficiently.

At the same time, enough power should be available to blow the molten material out.

Therefore, besides the beam quality and its control directly affecting the cutting quality, the nozzle design and airflow control (such as nozzle pressure, workpiece position in the air, etc.) are also very important factors.

Laser cutting nozzles use a simple structure, i.e., a conical hole with a small round hole. The design is usually carried out using the experimental and error method.

Since the nozzles are made of copper, small and wearable, and need to be replaced frequently, no hydrodynamic calculations and analyses are performed.

When used, the gas is ejected from the nozzle side to a certain pressure Pn (the pressure in the table is Pg) that refers to the pressure of the nozzle. The gas is discharged from the nozzle output and travels a given distance before reaching the workpiece’s surface. This pressure is called the cutting pressure Pc, and finally, the gas expands to atmospheric pressure Pa.

Studies have shown that as Pn increases, the flow rate increases, and so does Pc.

The airflow velocity may be calculated using the equation below:

V=8.2d2(Pg+1)

V- gas flow rate L/min

d- nozzle diameter mm

Pg-nozzle pressure (gauge pressure) bar

There are various pressure thresholds for different gases. The gas flow for the typical oblique shock wave transitions from subsonic to supersonic when the nozzle pressure surpasses this amount.

The Pn, Pa ratio and the degree of freedom of gas molecules (n) are all connected to this threshold: oxygen, air n = 5. Therefore, the threshold Pn = 1 bar x (1.2)3.5 = 1.89 bar.

The usual oblique shock wave is changed to a forward shock wave when the nozzle pressure is greater Pn/Pa=(1+1/n)1+n/2 (Pn=4bar).

The cutting pressure Pc drops, the airflow speed drops, and vortices develop on the workpiece’s surface, reducing the airflow’s ability to transport away the molten material and decreasing the cutting speed.

Therefore, the conical nozzle with a small round hole at the end is used, and the pressure of the oxygen nozzle is often below 3 bar.

Fiber Laser Cutting Machine Buying Guide

Understand your company’s product range, processed materials, cutting thickness, etc. Determine the model, size, and quantity of the laser cutting machine you need to purchase. Make a simple setting for future purchases.

Laser cutting machines are used in many industries, including cell phones, computers, sheet metal processing, metal fabrication, electronics, printing, packaging, leather, apparel, industrial fabrics, advertising, crafts, furniture, decoration, medical instruments, and meters.

3015 and 2513, which are 31.5m and 2.51.3m, respectively, are the most popular versions on the market (bedside width x length). However, the size of the laser cutting machine is not an issue, and generally, suppliers will provide various sizes for customers to choose from. Moreover, it can be customized.

Professionals perform an on-site simulation to solve or provide solutions, and you can also bring your materials to the manufacturer for sample making.

Thin cutting slit

The laser cutting slit is generally 0.10mm-0.20mm.

Smooth cutting surface

Whether the cutting surface of laser cutting has burrs.

Generally speaking, YAG laser cutting machine will have more or fewer burrs, mainly determined by the cutting thickness and gas.

Generally speaking, there is no burr below 3mm. Nitrogen cutting is the best, oxygen cutting is the second-best, and air cutting is the worst.

The fiber laser cutting machine has the fewest burrs and a smooth and quick cutting surface.

Check the deformation of the material.

Laser power

For example, if most of the factory is cutting metal plates below 6mm, there is no need to buy a high power laser cutting machine; a 500W fiber laser cutting machine can meet the production needs.

Suppose the output is larger, and you are worried that the cutting efficiency of the 500W laser cutting machine is not as good as the high power laser cutting machine. In that circumstance, purchasing two or more small and medium power laser cutting machines is ideal. This can help the factory save some costs and increase profits.

The laser cutting machine’s main component.

Laser generator and laser head.

Most laser generators are imported IPG brands, while the economic ones use the Chinese Raycus brand.

In addition, special attention should be paid to other components, such as motors (whether servo motors), linear guides, racks, etc. These components will also impact the cutting accuracy.

One thing to pay special attention to is the cooling system of the laser cutting machine – the cooling cabinet. Many companies use home air conditioners for direct cooling; the effect is obvious and bad. Using a specialist industrial air conditioner is the best method to get the greatest results.

Maintenance and charges

In the course of usage, any equipment will be damaged to varying degrees. It is important to consider whether the repair is timely and whether the charges are less in the repair after damage.

Therefore, it is necessary to know the company’s after-sales service through various channels, such as whether the maintenance fee is reasonable.

For more on how to choose a fiber laser cutting machine, you can refer to this post.

Laser Cutting Machine Kit

Laser Cutter Wearing Parts List
No.Item
1Protective Lens
2Filter Element
3Copper Nozzle
4Focus Lens
5Ceramic Ring
6Collimating Lens
7Amplifier
8Amplifier Connector

Analysis Of The Operating Costs Of Laser Cutting Machines

Calculate The Capital and Time Cost Of 1mm Stainless Steel As An Example

As an example:

They were cutting 1mm stainless steel, a total of 50,000 meters, the approximate period (due to the short drilling time of thin plate, it is impossible to record the empty stroke, production arrangements vary from company to company. Therefore, the statistical results will not be affected due to the horizontal comparison of efficiency and cost. Loading and unloading time is not counted)

Fiber laser cutting machine 2000W

50,000m÷20m/min÷60min=41.7h≈5 day

41.7h×(27.8RMB+70RMB)≈4078RMB

CO2 laser cutting machine 3000W

50,000m÷8m/min÷60min=104.2h≈13day

104.2h×(63.5RMB+70RMB)≈13911 RMB

CO2 laser cutting machine 2000W

50,000m÷6.5m/min÷60min=128.2h≈16days

128.2h×(50.5RMB+70RMB)≈15488 RMB

1mm SSFiber laser 2000WCO2 laser 3000WCO2 laser 2000W
Time(day)51316
Cost(RMB)40781391115488

Calculate The Capital and Time Cost Of 2mm Stainless Steel As an Example

For example:

Cutting 2mm stainless steel, a total of 50,000 meters, the approximate time for

Fiber laser cutter 2000W

50,000 meters ÷ 8.5 m / min ÷ 60 minutes = 98 hours ≈ 12 days

98 hours × (27.8 yuan + 70 yuan) ≈ 9588 yuan

CO2 laser cutting machine 3000W

50,000m÷4.5m/min÷60min=185.2hours≈23days

185.2 hours × (63.5 RMB + 70 RMB) ≈ 24724 RMB

CO2 laser cutting machine 2000W

50,000 meters ÷ 3 meters/minute ÷ 60 minutes = 277.8 hours ≈ 34.7 days

277.8 hours × (50.5 yuan + 70 yuan) ≈ 33475 yuan

2mm SSFiber laser 2000WCO2 laser 3000WCO2 laser 2000W
Time(day)122334.7
Cost(RMB)95882472433475

Operating Cost Analysis Table

Cost(RMB)IPG 2000WCO2 2000WCO2 3000W
Laser generator(KW)6.119.626.1
Water chiller(KW)5.6710.5
Auxiliary(KW)5.65.65.6
Laser cutter(KW)8.48.48.4
Gas(N2+H2+CO20710
Focus lens0.7411
Ceramic body0.80.80.8
Cutting nozzle0.20.20.2
Reflecting lens00.90.9
Protection lens0.400
Operation Total(RMB)27.850.563.5
Oxygen(1~20mm mild steel)12~18RMB/h
Nitrogen(1~8mm stainless steel)50~150 RMB /h

Operation Efficiency (1~4mm Thickness As an Example)

ItemThickness(mm)IPG2000CO2 2000WCO2 3000W
  Cutting speed(m/min)
Mild steel110.0-13.05.0–6.56.0–9.0
25.0-6.03.5–5.04.0–5.6
33.0-4.83.0–3.83.0–4.6
42.8-3.52.5–3.32.6–3.8
52.2-3.02.2–2.82.2–3.2
61.8-2.51.8–2.52.0–2.8
81.2-1.81.1–1.61.3–2.0
101.1-1.31.0–1.31.2–1.6
120.9-1.20.9–1.11.0–1.4
SS115.0-22.06.0-9.07.0–9.0
27.0-9.03.8-4.54.2–5.2
33.5-5.52.0-2.52.8–3.9
43.0-4.51.2-1.82.0–2.8
51.8-2.51.0-1.31.6–2.0
61.2-1.80.6-0.91.3–1.6
80.8-1.0 0.7–1.0

Maintenance and Troubleshooting of Fiber Laser Cutting Machine

Abstract

To ensure the normal use of the laser cutting machine, the equipment must be maintained daily.

As the laser cutting machine uses high-precision components, attention must be paid to the process of daily maintenance, in strict accordance with the operating procedures, and arrange for dedicated maintenance, not brutal operation, so as not to damage the components.

Users should always prepare the following spare parts:

  • Acetone: purity 99.5%, moisture less than 0.3%, capacity 500ml.
  • Absorbent cotton. Five packs. (Medical grade or optical grade)
  • Alcohol: 500ml, purity 99.5% or more.
  • Dropper: one (medical).
  • Cotton swabs: two packs.
  • Multimeter: one.

Installation Or Replacement Of The Internal Lens Of The Cutting Head

Cutting Head

1) Pay attention to the following points when fitting the optical lens: put on clean clothes, wash your hands with soap or detergent, and wear light and clean white gloves; do not touch any part of the lens with your hands; take the lens from the side and do not touch the lens coating surface directly.

2) When assembling the lens, do not blow into the lens with your mouth; the lens should be placed on a clean table with a few sheets of professional lens paper underneath.

When taking the lens, care should be taken to prevent bruising and falling, and no force should be allowed to be exerted on the lens coating surface; the lens mount should be cleaned, and the dust and dirt inside the lens mount should be cleaned with a clean air gun, and then, the lens should be gently put into the lens mount.

3) When mounting the lens on the frame, do not use too much force to fix the lens so as not to deform the lens, thus affecting the quality of the beam.

4) Precautions when replacing the optical lens:

  • When removing the lens from the box, be careful to prevent scratching the lens.
  • No pressure should be applied to the lens until the wrapping has been removed.
  • When removing the protective lens and focus lens from the box, wear clean gloves and remove them from the side of the lens.
  • Remove the wrapper from the lens and avoid dust and other objects falling on the lens.
  • After removing the lens, use a spray gun to remove the dust from the mirror, and then place the lens on the optics paper.
  • Remove the dust and dirt from the frame and mount, and avoid other foreign objects falling on the lens when assembling.
  • Mount the lens on the frame, do not use too much force not to deform the lens.
  • After the lens assembly is completed, use a clean air gun to remove the dust and foreign matter from the lens again.

Steps To Clean The Laser Cutting Machine Lens:

  • First, blow off the dust on the lens with the gun; then use a clean cotton swab to remove the dirt; use a cotton swab with new high purity alcohol or acetone to make a circular motion along from the center of the lens to scrub the lens, and after one circle, change a clean cotton swab and repeat the above operation until the lens is clean.
  • Scrub the lens with a clean cloth, remove the residual traces on the mirror, be careful not to scratch the mirror; clean the lens to get enough light to observe, if the lens reflection is good, it means the lens has been cleaned, if the lens reflection is not good, we should continue to clean the lens; put the cleaned lens on the mirror holder according to the above method. Prohibit the use of used cotton swabs to operate.

Storage Of Optical Lenses

  • Proper storage of optical lenses can maintain the quality of the lens.
  • Storage environment temperature of 10 ~ 30 ℃, the lens can not be placed in the freezer or similar environment. Otherwise, it will condense when removed; it is very easy to damage the lens; storage environment temperature can not exceed 30 ℃. Otherwise, the lens surface coating will be harmed.
  • When the lens is stored in the box, the lens should be placed in a vibration-free environment. Otherwise, it is easy to cause deformation of the lens, which affects the lens’s performance.

Electrical Inspection

Mainly to check the daily power supply voltage’s stability and keep the machine electrical cabinet clean and well ventilated. Check the integrity and safety of all parts of the line.

Maintenance Cycle

  • The maintenance cycle of the laser, water chiller, and air compressor should be carried out according to the maintenance cycle specified in the manual.
  • The first machine maintenance should be done after 24 hours of first use, then after 100 hours, and then after six months, and then after six months or once a year before that (depending on the customer’s specific circumstances).

Maintenance In Operation

Before the machine runs, please follow the daily checklist to overhaul the laser cutting machine. During the operation of the machine, if there is any abnormal sound, please stop the operation and check immediately. After the laser cutting machine is finished using, please stop the machine in order to clean the machine table and the area around the machine. Do not place extraneous objects on the machine table or control panel.

  • Check the machine regularly, focusing on the lubrication pump’s oil level (find insufficient oil and replenish it quickly), and extend the manual refueling time appropriately to ensure that the X-axis guide and Y-axis guide are filled with lubricant, ensuring machine accuracy and lubrication of the moving parts, as well as extending the life of the X- and Y-axis guides.
  • The dust on the Z-axis linear guide and screw axis must be cleaned once a week and oil added.
  • Check whether the water and air pipes are damaged once a week; if there is any damage, our staff should be notified in time for maintenance.
  • Clean the air and filter out the debris and dust every week.
  • Check the cooling water level inside the water cooler every week; if there is not enough, please add it in time.
  • Check the pollution of the focusing mirror once every half month and clean the optical lens in time to ensure its service life.
  • Check the protection mirror once a day to protect the cutting effect of the lens.
  • Check the air circuit once a month to eliminate hidden dangers.
  • Check the external cable for damage and the power distribution cabinet line interface for looseness regularly.
  • After six months of usage, the laser cutting machine’s level should be adjusted to guarantee that the machine’s cutting precision is maintained.

Maintenance When Not In Use For a Long Time

When the machine is not in use for a long time, please apply grease to the machine’s moving parts, wrap the anti-embroidery paper, regularly check the rusty parts, and do rust removal and anti-rust treatment rusty parts. (If you have enough budget, please add dust cover), and clean and check the machine regularly.

Laser Cutting Machine Troubleshooting
ProblemsCausesSolutions
Parts Are Processed Without The Use Of An Extra Gas Source1. lack of pressure;1. check the air pressure;
 2. the solenoid valve or wireline is broken;2. check the solenoid valve or solenoid valve line
There Is An Abnormal Sound In The Movement Of The Axis1. no lubricants on the moving parts;1. add lubricants;
 2. check the movement path is safe2. check the moving parts path safety
The Cutting Head Does Not Have A Laser. Or The Light Is Insufficient1. no light signal;1. check the PWM signal line;
 2. laser or fiber is broken;2. check whether the laser alarm;
 3. nozzle block; optical path partial;3. replace the nozzle; 4. adjust the optical path
The Cutting Pattern Does Not Correspond To The Dimensions Of The Picture1. the program errors;1. read the instructions. check the operation is correct;
 2. the positioning accuracy has been affected;2. check the accuracy of the machine is qualified;
 3. the servo is damaged;3. replace or repair the servo system

The World’s Best Fiber Laser Cutter Companies

The world’s leading companies include:

Trumpf (Germany), Prima (Italy), Bystronic (Switzerland), Amada (Japan), MAZAK, NTC, HGLaserLab (Australia), etc.

You can also view the top 15 largest laser cutting machine manufacturers globally.

There is no best, only better, and you should choose the one that suits you better.

Laser cutting is a well-established production method. The performance of first-class brands of laser cutting machines does not differ much, from the brand to the quality and service are very mature.

Choosing the right laser cutting machine usually depends on the material to be produced. The following issues need to be considered:

Cutting slit

The laser cutting slit is generally 0.10-0.20mm.

Smooth cutting surface

No burr on the cutting surface.

Small thermal deformation

The laser is characterized by a thin cutting slit, high speed, and concentrated energy, so the heat transferred to the cut material is small, and the deformation of the material is minimal.

Suitable for large products processing.

Laser processing does not require any mold, and laser processing completely avoids the collapse of the material formed by punching and shearing, which can greatly reduce the production costs of enterprises and improve the grade of products.

Applicable to the development of new products and shortening the development cycle.

After forming product drawings, laser processing can be carried out immediately, and new products can be obtained in the shortest possible time.

Save material

Laser processing adopts computer programming, which can make different shapes of products cut and maximize the utilization of materials.

Operation Of Fiber Laser Cutting Machine

Before using this laser cutting machine, please master the operation method related to the machine and understand each part of the machine. Proper operation is an effective measure to ensure the laser cutting machine’s normal work and personal safety. Please follow the following precautions and check before use when using the laser cutting machine.

Preparation and inspection before using the laser cutting machine:

  • Check to see if the machine’s oil level is within the usual range; if it isn’t, add oil to bring it up to par.
  • Check the relevant water and gas passages to ensure that the airflow and water do not leak and that the gas and cooling water are of normal quality and not contaminated.
  • Check the coaxiality of the laser and the gas nozzle to guarantee that the laser beam is discharged from the center of the gas nozzle.
  • Check whether the gas nozzle meets the requirements of the cutting process; otherwise, replace the corresponding cutting gas nozzle.
  • Check that the auxiliary gas for cutting is properly connected; otherwise, access the auxiliary gas for cutting and make sure the gas pressure has been adjusted to the proper level.

Safety precautions and safety signs before and during use

CAUTION

Stands for “CAUTION,” failure to follow proper operation may result in personal injury or equipment damage.

laser beam passing through

Represents the presence of a laser beam passing through, do not pass through the beam as this may cause burns to the body or even endanger life.

high voltage power

This represents the danger of a high voltage power supply, do not go near the high voltage. Otherwise, it may cause electric shock or even endanger life.

Precautions:

  • No one should at any time put their eyes in the direction of the laser (including red light).
  • When opening the blinds, prohibit people and non-working objects from entering the laser irradiation range.
  • The operator should wear protective glasses, and the operator is forbidden to leave the work area during the operation of the laser cutting machine.
  • When abnormalities occur during the use of the machine, the emergency stop switch should be pressed immediately, or the main power supply should be turned off.
  • In the use process, the cooling water temperature and working gas pressure should be checked frequently.
  • The non-machine staff is strictly prohibited from operating.
  • A laser cutting machine equipped with a laser is a Class 4 laser product; the laser is invisible light, and the emitted beam, lens reflection, and diffuse light may cause harm to the human body (especially the eyes). On-site personnel should pay attention to protection and prevent fire.
  • The exhaust gas produced during the laser cutting process is more harmful to the operator than the exhaust gas produced during the laser cutting process; make sure the machine’s vacuum cleaner is working properly.
  • Keep the laser cutting equipment clean and tidy, refuel as required to ensure reasonable lubrication; observe the handover system, manage the tools and accessories and do not lose them; stop and check immediately when a fault is found, and if the operator cannot handle it, notify the relevant engineer in time for a complete overhaul of it.
  • To prevent injury from electric shock, non-professional maintenance personnel are strictly prohibited from inspecting and repairing the electrical control part of the laser cutting machine.

Turn on/off sequence:

  • Turn on the external main power supply to connect to the control cabinet to make a dynamic electrical connection.
  • Make sure the water cooler switch is open (do not turn off the water cooler switch after use)
  • Check that the emergency stop switch is released
  • Turn on the key switch to the “on” position
  • Turn on the computer
  • Turn on the laser power to the left

At this point, the laser cutting machine is turned on and off in reverse order.

Use of software and programming

Please check the software manual for the use of the software, which will not be discussed in detail here.

Instructions for automatic calibration of height sensor

When you need to calibrate when exchanging nozzles or when the servo distance is not accurate, calibration is a way to correct the follower height in the following way:

  • Move the cutting head down to approximately 5 mm from the plate surface.
  • Select Calibrate → Floating Head Calibration → Confirm on the height control torch
  • At this point, the cutting head will be lowered twice to check the plate position; the whole process takes about 10S
  • After calibration, the calibration curve will be displayed on the height control torch. The normal curve is smooth. If the calibration result is bad, it will affect the cutting effect and recalibration.

In summary, many factors can affect the calibration results, and in general, these factors include:

  • The plate surface is not stable.
  • There is wobble when the Z-axis is sliding.
  • External electrical interference is too severe.

The calibration result includes four aspects. A, B, C, D. When the calibration result is “C” or above, the laser cutting machine can be used normally. When the calibration result is “D,” it needs to be recalibrated to eliminate the interference.

Laser Cutting Machine Safety

This post mainly introduces laser safety instructions, electrical safety, laser cutting machine protection measures, and general knowledge that operators should know. Safety is important to every operator. It is about life safety.

Precautions:

  • Designate safety management personnel, define their terms of reference, and provide laser processing operators safe operation and safety education.
  • Clearly define the laser safety management area and set up warning signs at the entrance of the management area, including the power of the laser processing machine, the type of laser, no outsiders allowed, attention to eye protection, and the name of the safety manager.
  • Operators of laser processing machines must be specially trained to a certain level and operate with the consent of the safety administrator.

Laser Safety Instructions

Lasers are primarily harmful to the human eye and skin. Laser exposure can cause burns to any part of the body. You should avoid placing any part of your body in the optical path of the laser equipment to avoid damage caused by misuse.

Eye and skin protection

In laser processing, CO2 and YAG lasers are usually used. Different types of lasers can cause different types of damage to the human body. The YAG laser may damage the eye’s retina because its wavelength has a high transmission rate to the human eye, making it more harmful. The damage of the CO2 laser is mainly burned on the corner of the eye. Both laser exposures may cause cataracts in the eye and risk burning the skin. Therefore, the appropriate protection measures should be used according to the different types of lasers when adjusting the laser.

Fire prevention

Laser cutting often uses oxygen, which, together with the sparks that fly during cutting, can easily lead to the risk of fire. Therefore, flammable and explosive substances should not be present in the work area, and appropriate precautions should be taken.

Electrical Safety

  • Do not touch any switches with wet hands to avoid electric shock. Areas on the laser cutting machine equipped with illuminated signs mean high voltage or electrical components in these areas. Operators should avoid electric shock when approaching these areas or opening them for maintenance, such as the protective cover of the servo motor position, the junction box behind the column, the transformer cabinet of the laser cutting machine, the door of the electrical cabinet, etc.
  • Read the machine manual and electrical schematic diagram thoroughly to be familiar with the function and role of the corresponding keys.
  • Do not open the electrical cabinet door easily and forbid changing the set machine parameters, servo parameters, and potentiometers (matching the exchange table) without permission. If changes are necessary, they must be made after training by the laser cutting machine manufacturer and approved by a professional. The parameter values should be recorded before changing to be restored to their original state if necessary.
  • The power supply voltage for processing laser cutting machines is usually several thousand to several tens of thousands of volts. Laser high voltage and electron tubes should be prevented from generating X-rays under high voltage.
  • Do not touch the electrically charged parts in the electrical cabinet that are in an energized state, such as the CNC unit, servo unit, transformer, fan, etc.

Warning:

After a power failure, you must wait for more than 5 minutes before touching the terminals. This is because there is a high voltage between the power line terminals after a power failure. To avoid electric shock, please do not touch immediately!!!

Protective Measures For Laser Cutting Machines

Designate a safety manager, define their terms of reference, and provide laser processing operators safe operation and safety education.

Clearly define the laser safety management area, set up warning signs at the entrance of the management area, including the power of the laser processing machine, the type of laser, prohibit outsiders from entering, and pay attention to eye protection and the name of the safety administrator.

When the laser processing machine is not in use, the key switch should be pulled out and kept by hand to avoid hazards caused by misuse.

The fumes and laser working gas produced during the production process should be discharged outside through the exhaust pipe, and all gas cylinders should be placed neatly and firmly.

Operators Should Understand Common Sense

Operators of laser cutting machines must be professionally trained to a specified degree and work with the safety manager’s permission.

When utilizing the laser cutting machine, the operator or anyone near the laser should wear suitable laser goggles and protective equipment. To ensure smooth operation by the operator, good indoor lighting is required in the area where the protective goggles are worn.

There must be a processing room or protective screen to protect the operator. There should be safety devices to prevent the laser’s spread and protect the operator. When the processing room door is opened, the laser roll-off should be closed.

Conclusion

Thru the above, I believe you already have a comprehensive understanding of fiber laser cutting machines. If you still have some questions, please contact us thru the link below, or leave us a message in the comments section.

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